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CGC1P, Geography

Geography Department, CGC1P, Grade 9 Geography

Issues in Canadian Geography, CGC1P, Grade 9, Applied

Policy Document: The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 to 10, Canadian and World Studies, 2014 Ministry of Education of Ontario Reference: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/secondary/canworld910curr2013.pdf

Course Description This course examines interrelationships within and between Canada’s natural and human systems and how these systems interconnect with those in other parts of the world. Students will explore environmental, economic, and social geographic issues relating to topics such as transportation options, energy choices, and urban development. Students will apply the concepts of geographical thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including spatial technologies, to investigate various geographic issues and to develop possible approaches for making Canada a more sustainable place in which to live. Prerequisite: None Summary of Units and Timelines Below is the suggested sequence of course unit delivery as well as the recommended number of hours to complete the respective unit. For complete details of targeted expectations within each unit and activity, please see each Unit Overview found in the course profile.

Unit Order

Unit Name

Suggested Time

     

Unit 1

Introduction to Canadian Geography

10 hours

Unit 2

Canada’s Physical Environment

15 hours

Unit 3

Resource Management and Industry

25 hours

Unit 4

Changing Populations

20 hours

Unit 5

Livable Communities

25 hours

Unit 6

Course Summative (Independent Study)

15 hours

   

Total: 110 hours

Fundamental Concepts Covered in This Course Geographic Thinking:

  1. Spatial Significance: This concept requires students to determine the importance of a place or region . They explore the connections that exist between the geographical location and physical characteristics of a site and analyse the unique relationships that exist in and between the natural and human environments in a particular place . Students come to understand that the significance of the same place may be different for humans, animals, and plants
  2. Patterns and Trends: This concept requires students to recognize characteristics that are similar and that repeat themselves in a natural or human environment (patterns) and characteristics or traits that exhibit a consistent tendency in a particular setting over a period of time (trends). The characteristics may be spatial, social, economic, physical or environmental. Students analyse connections between characteristics to determine patterns; they analyse connections between those characteristics over time to determine trends.
  3. Interrelationships: This concept requires students to explore connections within and between natural and human environments. The interconnected parts of an environment or environments work together to form a system. Students must understand the relationships that exist within a system and then critically analyse the relationships between systems to determine the impact they have on one another.
  4. Geographic Perspective: This concept requires students to consider the environmental, economic, political, and/or social implications of the issues, events, developments, and/or phenomena that they are analysing. In order to solve problems, make decisions or judgements, or formulate plans of action effectively, students need to develop their ability to examine issues from multiple perspectives.

Course Notes This course is designed to provide students with the necessary skills and knowledge as well as a development of an attitude that supports these skills and knowledge responsibly. The course design is geared to meet and exceed the prerequisite requirements for studying Canadian and world studies at the grade 10 level. The framework of course delivery focuses the “big ideas” through the lens of the goals of the Canadian and world studies program as outlined on page 6 of the Ontario Ministry of Education document: • develop the ability to use the “concepts of disciplinary thinking” to investigate issues, events, and developments; • develop the ability to determine and apply appropriate criteria to evaluate information and evidence and to make judgements; • develop skills and personal attributes that are needed for discipline-specific inquiry and that can be transferred to other areas in life; • build collaborative and cooperative working relationships; • use appropriate technology as a tool to help them gather and analyse information, solve problems, and communicate The organization of the course is packaged into five distinct topical units. A sixth unit, the Course Summative, will be developed throughout the first two-thirds of the course so that students can learn, develop and build on skills as they work through the research project. Teaching and Learning Strategies Teachers will bring enthusiasm and varied teaching and assessment approaches to the classroom, addressing individual students’ needs and ensuring sound learning opportunities for every student. The activities offered should enable students to relate and apply these concepts to the social, environmental, and economical conditions and concerns of the world in which they live. Opportunities to relate knowledge and skills to these wider contexts will motivate students to learn in a meaningful way and to become life-long learners. Teachers will help students understand that problem solving of any kind often requires a considerable expenditure of time and energy and a good deal of perseverance. Teachers also will encourage students to investigate, to reason, to explore alternative solutions and to take the risks necessary to become successful problem solvers. Effective instructional approaches and learning activities draw on students’ prior knowledge, capture their interest, and encourage meaningful practise both inside and outside the classroom. Students will be engaged when they are able to see the connection between the mathematical concepts they are learning and their application in the world around them and in real-life situations. Due to its importance, students will have opportunities to learn in a variety of ways- individually, cooperatively, independently, with teacher direction, through hands-on experiences, and through examples followed by practice. The approaches and strategies teachers use will vary according to both the object of the learning and the needs of the students. Teachers will accomplish this in an on-line environment with the use of on-line simulations, animations, videos, discussion forums, live chat and other interactive objects. Online & Offline Components The design of this course is intended to offer a rich balance between online and offline elements. The following is a summary of the course components and their delivery format. Please refer to the individual unit outlines for specific details. Course content & instruction: online Communication between teacher and students: online & offline Collaboration between students: online Assessment & evaluation: online & offline Practise exercises, textbook work, readings etc: offline  

Assessment & Evaluation for Student Achievement

As summarized in Growing Success 2010, the primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning. Information gathered through assessment helps teachers to determine students’ strengths and weaknesses in their achievement of the curriculum expectations in each course. This information also serves to guide teachers in adapting curriculum and instructional approaches to students’ needs and in assessing the overall effectiveness of programs and classroom practices. As part of assessment, teachers provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improvement. Evaluation refers to the process of judging the quality of student work on the basis of established criteria, and assigning a value to represent that quality. All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction, but evaluation focuses on students’ achievement of the overall expectations. A students’ achievement of the overall expectations is evaluated on the basis of his or her achievement of related specific expectations. Teachers will use their professional judgement to determine which specific expectations should be used to evaluate achievement of overall expectations, and which ones will be covered in instruction and assessment but not necessarily evaluated. In order to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid and reliable, and that they lead to the improvement of student learning, teachers must use assessment and evaluation strategies that:

  • Address both what students learn and how well they learn;
  • Are based both on the categories of knowledge and skills and on the achievement level descriptions given in the achievement chart
  • Are varied in nature, administered over a period of time, and designed to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
  • Are appropriate for the learning activities used, the purposes of instruction, and the needs and experiences of the students;
  • Are fair to all students;
  • Accommodate students with special education needs, consistent with the strategies outlined in their Individual Education Plan;
  • Accommodate the needs of students who are learning the language of instruction;
  • Ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement;
  • Promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals
  • Include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their achievement;
  • Are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the school year and at other appropriate points throughout the school year.

The achievement chart for mathematics outlines four categories of knowledge and skills. They include; knowledge and understanding, thinking, communication and application. Teachers will ensure that student work is assessed and/or evaluated in a balanced manner with respect to the four categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is considered within the appropriate categories. A final grade is recorded for this course, and a credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student’s grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:

  • Seventy percent of the grade will be based on evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade should reflect the student’s most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration should be given to more recent evidence of achievement. The seventy percent will be distributed in the following achievement chart categories: 25% Knowledge and understanding, 25% application, 25% communication and 25% thinking.
  • Thirty percent of the grade will be based on a final evaluation in the form of an examination administered towards the end of the course and a summative project which students can work on throughout the course.

Accommodations All students can succeed. Some students are able, with certain accommodations, to participate in the regular course curriculum and to demonstrate learning independently. Accommodations allow access to the course without any changes to the knowledge and skills the student is expected to demonstrate. The accommodations required to facilitate the student’s learning can be identified by the teacher, but recommendations from a School Board generated Individual Education Plan (IEP) if available can also be consulted. Instruction based on principles of universal design and differentiated instruction focuses on the provision of accommodations to meet the diverse needs of learners. Examples of accommodations (but not limited to) include:

  • Adjustment and or extension of time required to complete assignments or summative tasks
  • Providing alternative assignments or summative tasks
  • Use of scribes and/or other assistive technologies
  • Simplifying the language of instruction

Resources   Teachers will bring additional resources and teaching materials that provide a rich and diverse learning environment. There is no prescribed textbook for the course.

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