Policy Document: The Ontario Curriculum, Business Studies, 2006, Grades 11 and 12 (revised)
This course introduces students to advanced accounting principles that will prepare them for postsecondary studies in business. Students will learn about ﬁnancial statements for various forms of business ownership and how those statements are interpreted in making business decisions. This course expands students’ knowledge of sources of ﬁnancing, further develops accounting methods for assets, and introduces accounting for partnerships and corporations.
Prerequisite: Financial Accounting Fundamentals, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
Below is the suggested sequence of course unit delivery as well as the recommended number of hours to complete the respective unit. For complete details of targeted expectations within each unit and activity, please see each Unit Overview found in the course profile.
The Accounting Cycle
Accounting Practices for Assets
Partnerships and Corporations
Summative Research Essay
Total: 110 hours
Accounting is the language of business. It is difficult to imagine an organization or an individual that is not affected in some way by accounting. From the local corner store to the world’s largest corporation, businesses use accounting to organize, understand, and communicate all aspects of their financial position. Ultimately, it is this understanding that helps people make wise business decisions. The integration of information technology and accounting software throughout the accounting curriculum will help prepare students for today’s business environment. Students who learn not only the fundamentals of accounting, but how to think and apply that knowledge, will have the confidence to integrate accounting principles and practices into their work in a wide spectrum of careers.
Teachers will bring enthusiasm and varied teaching and assessment approaches to the classroom, addressing individual students’ needs and ensuring sound learning opportunities for every student. The activities offered should enable students to relate and apply these concepts to the social, environmental, and economic conditions and concerns of the world in which they live. Opportunities to relate knowledge and skills to these wider contexts will motivate students to learn in a meaningful way and to become life-long learners.
One of the keys to student success is high-quality instruction. Teachers who provide quality instruction respect students’ strengths and address their learning needs, using assessment information to plan instruction. They clarify the purpose for learning, help students activate prior knowledge, and differentiate instruction for individual students and small groups according to need. Teachers explicitly teach and model learning strategies and encourage students to talk through their thinking and learning processes. They also provide many opportunities for students to practise and apply their developing knowledge and skills. Effective teaching approaches involve students in the use of higher-level thinking skills and encourage them to look beyond the literal meaning of texts and to think about fairness, equity, social justice, and citizenship in a global society. In light of these goals, this course will include the following strategies for teaching and learning:
The design of this course is intended to offer a rich balance between online and offline elements. The following is a summary of the course components and their delivery format. Please refer to the individual unit outlines for specific details.
Course content & instruction: online
Communication between teacher and students: online & offline
Collaboration between students: online
Assessment & evaluation: online & offline
The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning. Information gathered through assessment helps teachers to determine students’ strengths and weaknesses in their achievement of the curriculum expectations in each course. This information also serves to guide teachers in adapting curriculum and instructional approaches to students’ needs and in assessing the overall effectiveness of programs and classroom practices. As part of assessment, teachers provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improvement.
Evaluation refers to the process of judging the quality of student work on the basis of established criteria, and assigning a value to represent that quality. All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction, but evaluation focuses on students’ achievement of the overall expectations. A students’ achievement of the overall expectations is evaluated on the basis of his or her achievement of related specific expectations. Teachers will use their professional judgement to determine which specific expectations should be used to evaluate achievement of overall expectations, and which ones will be covered in instruction and assessment but not necessarily evaluated.
In order to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid and reliable, and that they lead to the improvement of student learning, teachers must use assessment and evaluation strategies that:
The achievement chart for Business Studies outlines four categories of knowledge and skills. They include; knowledge and understanding, thinking and investigation, communication and application. Teachers will ensure that student work is assessed and/or evaluated in a balanced manner with respect to the four categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is considered within the appropriate categories.
A final grade is recorded for this course, and a credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student’s grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:
All students can succeed. Some students are able, with certain accommodations, to participate in the regular course curriculum and to demonstrate learning independently. Accommodations allow access to the course without any changes to the knowledge and skills the student is expected to demonstrate. The accommodations required to facilitate the student’s learning must be identified in his or her Individual Education Plan (IEP). Instruction based on principles of universal design and differentiated instruction focuses on the provision of accommodations to meet the diverse needs of learners.
Examples of accommodations (but not limited to) include:
Teachers will bring additional resources and teaching materials that provide a rich and diverse learning environment. Units in this course profile may make specific reference to a variety of readings required for this course but can be substituted for any relevant and approved text.
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