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BAT4M, Accounting

Financial Accounting Principles, BAT4M, Grade 12, University/College Preparation

Policy Document:  The Ontario Curriculum, Business Studies, 2006, Grades 11 and 12 (revised)

 Reference: https://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/secondary/business1112currb.pdf

Course Description

            This course introduces students to advanced accounting principles that will prepare them for postsecondary studies in business. Students will learn about financial statements for various forms of business ownership and how those statements are interpreted in making business decisions. This course expands students’ knowledge of sources of financing, further develops accounting methods for assets, and introduces accounting for partnerships and corporations.

Prerequisite: Financial Accounting Fundamentals, Grade 11, University/College Preparation

 

Summary of Units and Timelines

            Below is the suggested sequence of course unit delivery as well as the recommended number of hours to complete the respective unit. For complete details of targeted expectations within each unit and activity, please see each Unit Overview found in the course profile.

Sequence

Unit Name

Suggested Time

Unit 1

The Accounting Cycle

30 hours

Unit 2

Accounting Practices for Assets

25 hours

Unit 3

Partnerships and Corporations

20 hours

Unit 4

Decision Making

25 hours

Course Summative

Summative Research Essay

10 hours

 

 

Total: 110 hours

 

 Fundamental Concepts Covered in This Course

            Accounting is the language of business. It is difficult to imagine an organization or an individual that is not affected in some way by accounting. From the local corner store to the world’s largest corporation, businesses use accounting to organize, understand, and communicate all aspects of their financial position. Ultimately, it is this understanding that helps people make wise business decisions. The integration of information technology and accounting software throughout the accounting curriculum will help prepare students for today’s business environment. Students who learn not only the fundamentals of accounting, but how to think and apply that knowledge, will have the confidence to integrate accounting principles and practices into their work in a wide spectrum of careers.

 

 Teaching and Learning Strategies

 

            Teachers will bring enthusiasm and varied teaching and assessment approaches to the classroom, addressing individual students’ needs and ensuring sound learning opportunities for every student.  The activities offered should enable students to relate and apply these concepts to the social, environmental, and economic conditions and concerns of the world in which they live.  Opportunities to relate knowledge and skills to these wider contexts will motivate students to learn in a meaningful way and to become life-long learners.

               One of the keys to student success is high-quality instruction.  Teachers who provide quality instruction respect students’ strengths and address their learning needs, using assessment information to plan instruction.  They clarify the purpose for learning, help students activate prior knowledge, and differentiate instruction for individual students and small groups according to need.  Teachers explicitly teach and model learning strategies and encourage students to talk through their thinking and learning processes.  They also provide many opportunities for students to practise and apply their developing knowledge and skills.  Effective teaching approaches involve students in the use of higher-level thinking skills and encourage them to look beyond the literal meaning of texts and to think about fairness, equity, social justice, and citizenship in a global society.  In light of these goals, this course will include the following strategies for teaching and learning:

 

  • Independent research and analysis
  • Online quizzes
  • Collaborative online discussions
  • Peer feedback and critiques
  • Independent written assignments
  • Practical exercises using technology
  • Written final examination

 

 Online & Offline Components

             The design of this course is intended to offer a rich balance between online and offline elements.  The following is a summary of the course components and their delivery format.  Please refer to the individual unit outlines for specific details.

Course content & instruction: online

Communication between teacher and students: online & offline

Collaboration between students: online

Assessment & evaluation: online & offline

 

Assessment & Evaluation for Student Achievement

            The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning.  Information gathered through assessment helps teachers to determine students’ strengths and weaknesses in their achievement of the curriculum expectations in each course.  This information also serves to guide teachers in adapting curriculum and instructional approaches to students’ needs and in assessing the overall effectiveness of programs and classroom practices.  As part of assessment, teachers provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improvement.

            Evaluation refers to the process of judging the quality of student work on the basis of established criteria, and assigning a value to represent that quality.  All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction, but evaluation focuses on students’ achievement of the overall expectations.  A students’ achievement of the overall expectations is evaluated on the basis of his or her achievement of related specific expectations.  Teachers will use their professional judgement to determine which specific expectations should be used to evaluate achievement of overall expectations, and which ones will be covered in instruction and assessment but not necessarily evaluated.

            In order to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid and reliable, and that they lead to the improvement of student learning, teachers must use assessment and evaluation strategies that:

  • Address both what students learn and how well they learn;
  • Are based both on the categories of knowledge and skills and on the achievement level descriptions given in the achievement chart
  • Are varied in nature, administered over a period of time, and designed to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
  • Are appropriate for the learning activities used, the purposes of instruction, and the needs and experiences of the students;
  • Are fair to all students;
  • Accommodate students with special education needs, consistent with the strategies outlined in their Individual Education Plan;
  • Accommodate the needs of students who are learning the language of instruction;
  • Ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement;
  • Promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals
  • Include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their achievement;
  • Are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the school year and at other appropriate points throughout the school year.

            The achievement chart for Business Studies outlines four categories of knowledge and skills.  They include; knowledge and understanding, thinking and investigation, communication and application.  Teachers will ensure that student work is assessed and/or evaluated in a balanced manner with respect to the four categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is considered within the appropriate categories.

            A final grade is recorded for this course, and a credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student’s grade is 50% or higher.  The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:

  • Seventy percent of the grade will be based on evaluations conducted throughout the course.  This portion of the grade should reflect the student’s most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration should be given to more recent evidence of achievement. The 70% will be distributed in the following achievement chart categories: 20% knowledge and understanding, 20% application, 15% communication, 15% thinking. Student work will be assessed and evaluated in a balanced manner with respect to the four categories within each unit throughout the course.
  • Thirty percent of the grade will be based on final evaluations in the form of a research essay and an examination, written towards the end of the course.

 

 Accommodations

            All students can succeed.  Some students are able, with certain accommodations, to participate in the regular course curriculum and to demonstrate learning independently.  Accommodations allow access to the course without any changes to the knowledge and skills the student is expected to demonstrate.  The accommodations required to facilitate the student’s learning must be identified in his or her Individual Education Plan (IEP).  Instruction based on principles of universal design and differentiated instruction focuses on the provision of accommodations to meet the diverse needs of learners.

            Examples of accommodations (but not limited to) include:

  • Adjustment and or extension of time required to complete assignments or summative tasks
  • Providing alternative assignments or summative tasks
  • Use of scribes and/or other assistive technologies
  • Simplifying the language of instruction

Resources

             Teachers will bring additional resources and teaching materials that provide a rich and diverse learning environment.  Units in this course profile may make specific reference to a variety of readings required for this course but can be substituted for any relevant and approved text.

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